Sub-Saharan African Immigrants in the United States (2023)

Although relatively small, the sub-Saharan African immigrant population in the United States has grown substantially over the last four decades and is likely to continue to increase. Approximately 2.1 million sub-Saharan African immigrants resided in the United States in 2019, representing 5 percent of the total foreign-born population of 44.9 million. This highly diverse group is comprised of individuals from 51 countries, with a range of ethnic, linguistic, and educational backgrounds.

Compared to the total U.S. immigrant population, sub-Saharan Africans are better educated, participate in the labor force at higher rates, and are more likely to speak English at home. Yet they also have lower average incomes and experience poverty at higher rates than the foreign-born population overall.

The first wave of large-scale voluntary migration from sub-Saharan Africa to the United States began in the second half of the 20th century, after significant U.S. policy changes. The Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 expanded pathways for non-Western European immigrants to come to the United States, mainly through family ties. The Refugee Act of 1980 increased admissions of refugees fleeing conflict, including from the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, and Eritrea. And the Immigration Act of 1990 created the Diversity Visa to bolster immigration from under-represented countries, including Benin and Cameroon. The 1990 law also made it easier for highly skilled immigrants to migrate for work, opening the door to educated workers and international students from countries including Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, and South Africa.More recently, many sub-Saharan immigrants have arrived as family members of those already residing in the United States. As part of travel bans it imposed, the Trump administration temporarily prohibited most arrivals of citizens from four sub-Saharan African countries (Chad, Eritrea, Nigeria, and Somalia) and prohibited citizens of Tanzania from applying for the Diversity Visa lottery. Although the restrictions were lifted by the Biden administration, it is unclear what long-term impact they had on U.S. immigration.

Overall, the number of sub-Saharan African immigrants in the United States has increased 16-fold since 1980. While most of the 4.6 million Black immigrants in the United States are from the Caribbean, people from sub-Saharan Africa represent a growing share. The U.S. Census Bureau projects that the total foreign-born Black population will more than double by 2060, to 9.5 million.

Figure 1. Sub-Saharan African Immigrants in the United States, 1980-2019

Sub-Saharan African Immigrants in the United States (1)

Source:Data from U.S. Census Bureau 2010 and 2019 American Community Surveys (ACS), and Campbell J. Gibson and Kay Jung, "Historical Census Statistics on the Foreign-born Population of the United States: 1850-2000" (Working Paper no. 81, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC, February 2006),available online.

Fifty-three percent of sub-Saharan African immigrants came from one of five countries: Nigeria, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, or Somalia. Western Africa is the largest subregional origin, while relatively few immigrants hail from Southern Africa.

Table 1. Sub-Saharan African Immigrants in the United States by Country and Region of Origin, 2019

Sub-Saharan African Immigrants in the United States (2)

Notes: “Africa, not elsewhere classified” includes people from Africa who did not report their country of birth, and some may have been from North Africa.
Source:Migration Policy Institute (MPI) tabulation of data from the U.S. Census Bureau 2019 ACS.

Globally, approximately 28.3 million sub-Saharan Africans reside outside their countries of birth, according to mid-2020 estimates by the United Nations Population Division. Of these, about 17.8 million (63 percent) lived elsewhere within the region. Côte d’Ivoire, South Africa, Uganda, Sudan, and Nigeria were the main destinations, hosting 48 percent of all intraregional migrants. Outside the region, the United States was the top destination for sub-Saharan Africans, followed by the United Kingdom (1.4 million), France (1.1 million), Italy (524,000), and Canada (435,000).

Click hereto view an interactive map showing where migrants from sub-Saharan Africa and other countries have settled worldwide.

Using data from the U.S. Census Bureau (the 2019 American Community Survey [ACS], as well as pooled 2015-19 ACS data), the Department of Homeland Security’sYearbook of Immigration Statistics, and World Bank annual remittances data, this Spotlight provides information on the sub-Saharan African immigrant population in the United States, focusing on its size, geographic distribution, and socioeconomic characteristics. The article focuses on the population of immigrants from the entire sub-Saharan African subregion, as well as those from the largest origin countries (of at least 70,000 immigrants to the United States): Cameroon, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Liberia, Nigeria, Somalia, and South Africa.

Definitions

The U.S. Census Bureau defines the foreign born as individuals who had no U.S. citizenship at birth. The foreign-born population includes naturalized citizens, lawful permanent residents, refugees and asylees, legal nonimmigrants (including those on student, work, or other temporary visas), and persons residing in the country without authorization.

The terms “foreign born” and “immigrant” are used interchangeably and refer to those who were born in another country and later migrated to the United States. Data collection constraints do not permit inclusion of those who gained citizenship in a sub-Saharan African country via naturalization and later moved to the United States.

(Video) Contemporary African Immigrants in the United States

Sub-Saharan Africa is defined as all African countries except Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Sudan, Tunisia, and the disputed Western Sahara territory. Due to data limitations and for the purposes of this Spotlight, individuals in the “Africa, not elsewhere classified” category were added to the sub-Saharan African foreign-born group.

Click on the bullet points below for more information:

  • Distribution by State and Key Cities
  • Language Diversity and English Proficiency
  • Age, Education, and Employment
  • Income and Poverty
  • Immigration Pathways and Naturalization
  • Unauthorized Population
  • Health Coverage
  • Diaspora
  • Remittances

Distribution by State and Key Cities

Sub-Saharan African immigrants reside in communities across the United States. The largest shares lived, as of the 2015-19 period, in Texas (12 percent), New York and Maryland (8 percent each), California (7 percent), and Minnesota (6 percent). The counties with the most sub-Saharan African immigrants were Harris County in Texas, Bronx County in New York, Prince George’s County in Maryland, Hennepin County in Minnesota, and Montgomery County in Maryland. Together, these counties accounted for about 14 percent of the total sub-Saharan immigrant population in the United States.

Figure 2. Top States of Residence for Sub-Saharan African Immigrants in the United States, 2015-19

Sub-Saharan African Immigrants in the United States (3)

Note:Pooled 2015-19 ACS data were used to get statistically valid estimates at the state and metropolitan statistical area levels, for smaller-population geographies. Not shown are the populations in Alaska and Hawaii, which are small in size; for details, visit the Migration Policy Institute’s (MPI) Migration Data Hub for an interactive map showing geographic distribution of immigrants by state and county,available online.
Source: MPI tabulation of data from U.S. Census Bureau pooled 2015-19 ACS.

Click herefor an interactive map that shows the geographic distribution of immigrants by state and county. Select individual sub-Saharan African countries from the dropdown menu to see which states and counties have the most immigrants.

The greater New York and Washington, DC metropolitan areas were the U.S. cities with the most sub-Saharan African immigrants (about 10 percent each), followed by Dallas, Minneapolis, and Atlanta. These five metropolitan areas were home to about 35 percent of all sub-Saharan African immigrants in the United States.

Figure 3. Top Metropolitan Areas of Residence for Sub-Saharan Africans in the United States, 2015-19

Sub-Saharan African Immigrants in the United States (4)

Source:MPI tabulation of data from the U.S. Census Bureau pooled 2015-19 ACS.

Click herefor an interactive map that highlights the metropolitan areas with the highest concentrations of immigrants from sub-Saharan African countries.

Table 2. Top Concentrations for Sub-Saharan African Immigrants by U.S. Metropolitan Area, 2015-19

Sub-Saharan African Immigrants in the United States (5)

Source:MPI tabulation of data from U.S. Census Bureau pooled 2015-19 ACS.

Language Diversity and English Proficiency

In 2019, 26 percent of sub-Saharan African immigrants spoke only English at home, compared to 16 percent of all immigrants. Meanwhile, 25 percent of those ages 5 and over reported limited English proficiency, a much lower rate than the overall foreign-born population (46 percent). Higher levels of proficiency in English are not surprising, as most sub-Saharan African immigrants come from countries where English is an official language. Other than English, top languages spoken were Amharic, French, Somali, Beja or other Cushitic languages, and Swahili and other Bantu languages.

Note:Limited English proficiency refers to those who indicated on the ACS questionnaire that they spoke English less than “very well.”

Age, Education, and Employment

(Video) The shattered dreams of African migrants

Sub-Saharan African immigrants are on average younger than the overall U.S. foreign-born population, but older than the native born. The median age of immigrants from sub-Saharan Africa was 39 in 2019, compared to 46 for the overall foreign-born population and 37 for the U.S. born. In 2019, 82 percent of sub-Saharan African immigrants were of working age (18 to 64 years old), compared to 78 percent and 59 percent for the overall foreign-born and U.S.-born populations, respectively.

Figure 4. Age Distribution of U.S. Residents by Origin, 2019

Sub-Saharan African Immigrants in the United States (6)

Note:Percentages may not add up to 100 as they are rounded to the nearest whole number.
Source:MPI tabulation of data from the U.S. Census Bureau, 2019 ACS.

Sub-Saharan African immigrant adults tend to have higher levels of education than the overall foreign- and native-born populations. In 2019, 42 percent of sub-Saharan Africans ages 25 and over held a bachelor’s degree or higher, compared to 33 percent for both all foreign- and U.S.-born adults. Nigerians and South Africans were the most highly educated among the top sending-country nationalities, with 64 percent and 58 percent respectively holding at least a bachelor’s degree, followed by Cameroonians (52 percent), Kenyans (49 percent), and Ghanaians (42 percent). Meanwhile, Somalis had the lowest levels of educational attainment, with 14 percent holding a bachelor’s degree or higher.

In the 2020-21 school year, about 39,100 sub-Saharan African students were enrolled in U.S. higher educational institutions, representing 4 percent of all 914,100 international students in the United States. Nigeria (12,900), Ghana (4,200), and Kenya (3,500) were the region’s top origin countries of international students.

Sub-Saharan African immigrants participate in the U.S. civilian labor force at a higher rate than both the native- and overall foreign-born populations. In 2019, about 76 percent of sub-Saharan African immigrants ages 16 and older were in the civilian labor force, compared to 67 percent of foreign-born and 62 percent of native-born adults, respectively.

Owing in part to their higher levels of education and better English skills, sub-Saharan African immigrants were almost as likely to be employed in management, business, science, and arts occupations as their U.S.-born counterparts (39 percent and 41 percent, respectively). The share was higher for South Africans (62 percent), Nigerians (51 percent), and Cameroonians (49 percent). In contrast, 38 percent of Somali immigrants worked in production, transportation, and material moving occupations, while 36 percent of Liberians were employed in service occupations.

Figure 5. Employed Workers in the U.S. Civilian Labor Force (ages 16 and older) by Occupation and Origin, 2019

Sub-Saharan African Immigrants in the United States (7)

Source:MPI tabulation of data from the U.S. Census Bureau, 2019 ACS.

Income and Poverty

On average, household incomes of sub-Saharan Africans were lower than those for the overall immigrant population. In 2019, households headed by a sub-Saharan African immigrant had a median income of $58,000, compared to about $64,000 for all immigrant households and $66,000 for U.S.-born households.

Among those from major origin countries, households headed by immigrants from South Africa ($111,000) and Kenya ($70,000) had the highest median incomes, while Somali-headed households had the lowest median incomes ($32,000).

Approximately 17 percent of sub-Saharan African immigrants lived in poverty (defined as earning less than $25,750 for a family of four in 2019), compared to 14 percent of the entire immigrant population and 12 percent of the U.S. born. For major origin groups, poverty rates were highest among Somalis (37 percent) and lowest among Cameroonians and Liberians (9 percent each).

Immigration Pathways and Naturalization

Sub-Saharan African immigrants were slightly more likely to be naturalized U.S. citizens than the overall foreign-born population (56 percent and 52 percent, respectively). Immigrants from Somalia (68 percent) and Ethiopia (65 percent) had the highest rates of naturalization among the major national-origin groups, while those from Cameroon had the lowest rate (48 percent).

Sub-Saharan Africans are far more likely than the overall immigrant population to have entered the United States during the last two decades: 72 percent arrived since 2000, compared to 50 percent of all immigrants.

Figure 6. Sub-Saharan African Immigrants and All Immigrants in the United States by Period of Arrival, 2019

Sub-Saharan African Immigrants in the United States (8)

(Video) South Africa Current Migration Situation (3 of 3 in series)

Source:MPI tabulation of data from the U.S. Census Bureau, 2019 ACS.

About 9 percent (63,200) of the 707,400 immigrants who became lawful permanent residents (LPRs) in 2020 were from sub-Saharan Africa. More than half did so as immediate relatives of U.S. citizens or through family-sponsored preferences (43 percent and 11 percent, respectively). New LPRs from sub-Saharan Africa were much more likely to have been admitted as refugees (26 percent) or through the Diversity Visa lottery program (10 percent) than immigrants overall. Meanwhile, sub-Saharan Africans were much less likely to become green-card holders via employment pathways (9 percent) than all new LPRs (21 percent).

Figure 7. Immigration Pathways of Sub-Saharan African Immigrants and All Lawful Permanent Residents in the United States, 2020

Sub-Saharan African Immigrants in the United States (9)

Notes: Immediate relatives of U.S. citizens includes spouses, minor children, and parents of U.S. citizens.Family-sponsored preferences include adult children and siblings of U.S. citizens as well as spouses and children of green-card holders.The Diversity Visa lottery was established by the Immigration Act of 1990 to allow entry to immigrants from countries with low rates of immigration to the United States. The law states that 55,000 diversity visas are made available each fiscal year (FY). For the FY 2023 Diversity Visa program, nationals of all countries in sub-Saharan Africa except Nigeria were eligible to participate in the lottery.
Source:MPI tabulation of data from Department of Homeland Security (DHS), 2020 Yearbook of Immigration Statistics(Washington, DC: DHS Office of Immigration Statistics, 2022),available online.

Most new LPRs from Burundi (87 percent), Central African Republic (86 percent), and Tanzania (83 percent) obtained their green cards in 2020 by adjusting from refugee or asylee status. The Diversity Visa lottery program was a significant route for immigrants from Benin (accounting for 52 percent of their green cards), Togo (36 percent), and the Republic of the Congo (31 percent).

A total of 11,400 refugees were resettled in the United States in fiscal year (FY) 2021, 43 percent of whom were from the Democratic Republic of the Congo—the largest single country of origin for all refugee resettlement that year. In recent years, the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Somalia have been two of the top five countries of origin for refugee arrivals, accounting for 13 percent and 9 percent of all 539,900 refugees arriving between FY 2011 and FY 2021.

Unauthorized Population

The Migration Policy Institute (MPI) estimates as that as of 2019, approximately 261,000 (2 percent) of the 11 million unauthorized immigrants in the United States were from sub-Saharan Africa.

As of December 2021, approximately 3,300 unauthorized immigrants from sub-Saharan Africa were active participants in the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) program, which provides temporary deportation relief and work authorization, according to the most recent data available from U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS). These individuals represented about 1 percent of the 611,500 total DACA participants. Individuals from Nigeria (840 participants), Kenya (550), and Ghana (380) were the largest sub-Saharan African groups to participate in DACA.

Since 2013, there has been an uptick in the number of sub-Saharan African migrants taken into custody by U.S. Border Patrol, primarily at the U.S.-Mexico border. Encounters of sub-Saharan Africans jumped from about 350 in FY 2018 to 1,700 in FY 2019, a record high, before declining slightly amid the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. While a significant increase over earlier years, the 1,300 encounters of unauthorized sub-Saharan African migrants in FY 2020 (the most recent year for which detailed data by nationality have been reported) represented just 0.3 percent of the 405,000 total encounters that year.

Figure 8. U.S. Border Patrol Encounters of Sub-Saharan African Migrants, FY 2013-20

Sub-Saharan African Immigrants in the United States (10)

Note: Figure refers to the number of migrant encounters at the southern, northern, and coastal U.S. borders.
Source: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), U.S. Border Patrol Nationwide Apprehensions by Citizenship and Sector (FY2007 - FY 2020), updated August 10, 2021,available online.

Health Coverage

Sub-Saharan African immigrants were less likely to be uninsured than the overall foreign-born population (16 percent versus 20 percent, respectively) but more likely than the U.S.-born population (8 percent). Among the largest sub-Saharan origin groups, South Africans had the lowest rate of being uninsured (8 percent) while Nigerians and Somalis had the highest rates (20 percent and 18 percent, respectively).

Figure 9. Health Coverage for the U.S. Population by Nativity, 2019

Sub-Saharan African Immigrants in the United States (11)

Note:The sum of shares by type of insurance is likely to be greater than 100 because people may have more than one type of insurance.
Source:MPI tabulation of data from the U.S. Census Bureau, 2019 ACS.

Diaspora

(Video) Sub-Saharan Africa Explained | World101

The sub-Saharan African diaspora in the United States is comprised of more than 4.5 million individuals who were either born in sub-Saharan Africa or reported ancestry of a given country in sub-Saharan Africa, according to tabulations from the 2019 ACS.

Remittances

Remittances sent via formal channels to sub-Saharan African countries rose over 14-fold since 2000, from $3.4 billion to the peak of $48 billion in 2018, but subsequently declined. The World Bank estimates that 2020 remittance flows to the region equaled $41.7 billion.

Figure 10. Annual Remittance Flows to Sub-Saharan African Countries, 1980-2020

Sub-Saharan African Immigrants in the United States (12)

Note: Figures for 2020 represent World Bank estimates.
Source:MPI tabulations of data from the World Bank Prospects Group, “Annual Remittances Data,” May 2021 update, available online.

Some sub-Saharan African economies have been more dependent on remittances than others. Remittances accounted for 35 percent of the gross domestic product (GDP) of Somalia, 30 percent of South Sudan’s, and 21 percent of Lesotho’s. Although Nigeria, Africa’s largest economy, received by far the most remittances in the region in 2020 ($17.2 billion), these transfers accounted for just 4 percent of its GDP.

Visit the Migration Data Hub’s collection of interactive remittances tools to track remittances by inflow and outflow, between countries, and over time.

Sources

Capps, Randy, Kristen McCabe, and Michael Fix. 2012.Diverse Streams: African Migration to the United States.Washington, DC: Migration Policy Institute.Available online.

Gibson, Campbell J. and Kay Jung. 2006. Historical Census Statistics on the Foreign-Born Population of the United States: 1850-2000. Working Paper No. 81, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC, February 2006.Available online.

Institute of International Education (IIE). 2021.International Students: All Places of Origin. Washington, DC: IIE.Available online.

Kenin, Justine and Jason Fuller. 2022. 1 in 10 Black People in the U.S. Are Migrants. Here's What's Driving That Shift. National Public Radio (NPR), February 20, 2022. Available online.

Lacarte, Valerie. 2022. Black Immigrants in the United States Face Hurdles, but Outcomes Vary by City. Migration Information Source, February 10, 2022. Available online.

Ruggles, Steven, et al. 2019. IPUMS USA: Version 9.0 [dataset]. Minneapolis: IPUMS.Available online.

Tamir, Christine and Monica Anderson. 2022. One-In-Ten Black People in the U.S. Are Immigrants. Washington, DC: Pew Research Center. Available online.

United Nations Population Division. 2020. International Migrant Stock 2020: Destination and Origin.Available online.

U.S. Census Bureau. 2020. 2019 American Community Survey. Accessed from Steven Ruggles, Katie Genadek, Ronald Goeken, Josiah Grover, and Matthew Sobek. Integrated Public Use Microdata Series: Version 11.0 [dataset]. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota.Available online.

---. N.d. 2019 American Community Survey—Advanced Search. Accessed April 25, 2022.Available online.

U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS). 2022. Count of Active DACA Recipients by Month of Current DACA Expiration as of December 31, 2021. Washington, DC: USCIS.Available online.

U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS), Office of Immigration Statistics. 2022.2020 Yearbook of Immigration Statistics. Washington, DC: DHS Office of Immigration Statistics.Available online.

U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP). U.S. Border Patrol Nationwide Apprehensions by Citizenship and Sector (FY2007 - FY 2020). Updated August 10, 2021.Available online.

(Video) Unpacking the New U.S. Strategy Toward Sub-Saharan Africa

World Bank Prospects Group. 2021. Annual Remittances Data, May 2021 update.Available online.

FAQs

Why did many African immigrants come to the United States? ›

This trend began after decolonization, as many Africans moved to the U.S. seeking an education and to escape poverty, and has risen steadily over time. The increase in the rate of migration is projected to continue for the coming decades.

How Sub-Saharan Africans contribute to the U.S. economy? ›

They also make meaningful contributions to several vital sectors of the economy – including healthcare – where employers have persistent challenges finding enough workers. African immigrant households contribute billions of dollars to the U.S. economy through their spending and tax payments.

Where do most African immigrants in the U.S. come from? ›

While most of the 4.6 million Black immigrants in the United States are from the Caribbean, people from sub-Saharan Africa represent a growing share.

Where did African immigrants settle in America? ›

Black migrants from different regions of the world settle in different regions of the U.S. For example, the American South was home to the largest share of African-born migrants in 2019 (40%), while roughly one-in-five settled in either the Midwest (22%) or Northeast (20%) and 17% lived in the West.

What were 2 main reasons that immigrants came to America? ›

Many immigrants came to America seeking greater economic opportunity, while some, such as the Pilgrims in the early 1600s, arrived in search of religious freedom. From the 17th to 19th centuries, hundreds of thousands of enslaved Africans came to America against their will.

What are 3 reasons immigrants came to America? ›

People may choose to immigrate for a variety of reasons, such as employment opportunities, to escape a violent conflict, environmental factors, educational purposes, or to reunite with family.

Why is sub-Saharan Africa important? ›

Sub-Saharan Africa plays a critical role in advancing global priorities to the benefit of Africans and Americans. It has one of the world's fastest growing populations, largest free trade areas, most diverse ecosystems, and one of the largest regional voting groups in the United Nations (UN).

What is sub-Saharan Africa known for? ›

Generally, sub-Saharan Africa is the poorest region in the world, still suffering from the legacies of colonialism, slavery, native corruption, socialist economic polices, and inter-ethnic conflict. The region contains many of the least developed countries in the world.

Why is most of sub-Saharan Africa poor? ›

What Causes Poverty in Sub-saharan Africa? While the root causes of poverty in Sub-saharan Africa are not different from the causes of poverty anywhere else, poverty has been growing in Sub-saharan Africa due to the long-term impacts of external factors like war, genocide, famine, and land availability.

Which U.S. state has the most African immigrants? ›

African immigrants to the U.S. are more likely to settle in the South (39%) or the Northeast (25%), than in the Midwest (18%) or West (17%), while the largest numbers of African immigrants are found in Texas, New York, California, Maryland, New Jersey, Massachusetts and Virginia.

When did Africans start migrating to America? ›

Africans came to the New World in the earliest days of the Age of Exploration. In the early 1500s, Africans trekked across the many lands in North, Central, and South America that were claimed by Spain, some coming in freedom and some in slavery, working as soldiers, interpreters, or servants.

When did most African immigrants come to America? ›

More than half of Black immigrants (58%) arrived in the U.S. after 2000. Roughly three-in-ten (31%) came to the U.S. between 2010 and 2019, and a little over a quarter (27%) immigrated between 2000 and 2009.

Which city has the most black people in America? ›

At 90 percent, South Fulton is the Blackest city in America. No other city above 100,000 population has more than 80 percent Black residents. South Fulton, Ga.

Where did most of the immigrants to America come from? ›

The United States experienced successive waves of immigration, particularly from Europe, and later from Asia and Latin America. Colonial era immigrants often repaid the cost of transoceanic transportation by becoming indentured servants where the new employer paid the ship's captain.

Who migrated to America first? ›

The settlement of the Americas began when Paleolithic hunter-gatherers entered North America from the North Asian Mammoth steppe via the Beringia land bridge, which had formed between northeastern Siberia and western Alaska due to the lowering of sea level during the Last Glacial Maximum (26,000 to 19,000 years ago).

Who came to America first? ›

The Spanish were among the first Europeans to explore the New World and the first to settle in what is now the United States. By 1650, however, England had established a dominant presence on the Atlantic coast. The first colony was founded at Jamestown, Virginia, in 1607.

Who were the first people to come to America? ›

In the 1970s, college students in archaeology such as myself learned that the first human beings to arrive in North America had come over a land bridge from Asia and Siberia approximately 13,000 to 13,500 years ago. These people, the first North Americans, were known collectively as Clovis people.

What challenges do immigrants face? ›

5 Challenges Immigrants Face When They're New to the Country
  • Navigating life in a new language. Uprooting your life and moving to a new country is challenging by itself. ...
  • Building your credit. ...
  • Access to health care. ...
  • Employment opportunities. ...
  • The power of education.
5 Feb 2022

What are the benefits of immigrants? ›

Immigration fuels the economy. When immigrants enter the labor force, they increase the productive capacity of the economy and raise GDP. Their incomes rise, but so do those of natives.

What are the 5 effects of migration? ›

Migrants eventually induce social, economic, and political problems in receiving countries, including 1) increases in the population, with adverse effects on existing social institutions; 2) increases in demand for goods and services; 3) displacement of nationals from occupations in the countryside and in the cities; 4 ...

What does the word Sub-Saharan Africa mean? ›

: of, relating to, or being the part of Africa south of the Sahara.

What are the major problems in Sub-Saharan Africa? ›

Corruption and mismanagement are pervasive across much of the region, and state services are limited. Authoritarian governments and armed belligerents in Africa commit serious human rights violations. Peace and Security.

What does Sub-Saharan Africa refer to? ›

This term is used to describe the geographical area of the continent of Africa that lies south of the Sahara. According to the United Nations, it consists of all African countries and territories that are fully or partially south of the Sahara.

Who are the sub-Saharan people? ›

The Sub-Saharan African People: Southern Africa

The Zulu ethnic group is found in South Africa. The Oromo are found in the Horn of Africa. This ethnic diversity is found in Ethiopia and has a population of about 35 million.

Why does Sub-Saharan Africa have so much conflict? ›

Pervasive conflict throughout much of Sub-Saharan Africa defies easy resolution due to a unique web of factors. Poor governance, ethnic rivalry, mismanagement of land and natural resources, declining economic conditions, and widespread poverty and famine form a daunting bulwark against stability.

What are the four parts of Sub-Saharan Africa? ›

Landforms Ecologically separated from North Africa by the sweeping and sparsely populated Sahara Desert, the sub-Saharan mainland consists of four vast and distinct regions: Central Africa, East Africa, West Africa, and Southern Africa. Together, they constitute an area of 9.4 million square miles.

What is the poorest sub-Saharan African country? ›

Figure 1 shows the distribution of the extreme poor across African economies. Nigeria has the largest poor population in Sub-Saharan Africa (79 million extreme poor).

What are the three most dominant problems Sub-Saharan African countries face today? ›

These are the 5 biggest risks facing sub-Saharan Africa this year
  • Unemployment and underemployment. Unemployment in sub-Saharan Africa stands at around 6%, according to the International Labour Organization. ...
  • Underinvestment in infrastructure. ...
  • Fiscal crises. ...
  • Political change. ...
  • Climate change.
3 Sept 2019

What are the 3 largest economies in sub-Saharan Africa? ›

In nominal terms, Nigeria is the largest economy in Africa, followed by South Africa and Egypt. These three together account for almost half of the African economy.

Which U.S. state has the least African American population? ›

States with the Lowest Black Population

Wyoming has the lowest Black population of 11,306 (2%), followed by Montana with 12,007 (1%), and Vermont with 12,936 (2%).

What is the largest immigrant group in the United States? ›

Here are the 10 countries with the most immigrants to the United States:
  • Mexico - 1,480,901.
  • China - 713,527.
  • India - 631,689.
  • Philippines - 496,361.
  • Dominican Republic - 481,183.
  • Cuba - 468,604.
  • Vietnam - 333,900.
  • El Salvador - 214,390.

How long was the trip from Africa to America? ›

The journey between Africa and the Americas, "The Middle Passage," could take four to six weeks, but the average lasted between two and three months. Chained and crowded with no room to move, Africans were forced to make the journey under terrible conditions, naked and lying in filth.

Who brought the first Africans to America? ›

Christopher Columbus likely transported the first Africans to the Americas in the late 1490s on his expeditions to the island of Hispaniola, now Haiti and the Dominican Republic. Their exact status, whether free or enslaved, remains disputed.

What was the African American Migration called? ›

The Great Migration was one of the largest movements of people in United States history. Approximately six million Black people moved from the American South to Northern, Midwestern, and Western states roughly from the 1910s until the 1970s.

When did the U.S. stop taking slaves from Africa? ›

On the first day of January, 1808, a new Federal law made it illegal to import captive people from Africa into the United States. This date marks the end—the permanent, legal closure—of the trans-Atlantic slave trade into our country.

What is the least diverse city in America? ›

2022's Most & Least Ethnically Diverse Cities – WalletHub Study
Most Ethnically Diverse CitiesLeast Ethnically Diverse Cities
1. Jersey City, NJ492. Laconia, NH
2. Germantown, MD493. Butte-Silver Bow, MT
3. Gaithersburg, MD494. Barre, VT
4. Silver Spring, MD495. Watertown, SD
6 more rows
7 Sept 2022

What city has the largest white population? ›

15 largest US cities
2015 rankCityWhite percentage
1New York44.0%
2Los Angeles41.3%
3Chicago45.0%
4Houston49.3%
11 more rows

What percent of America is Black? ›

Who has the highest immigration rate? ›

The United States is home to the highest number of immigrants in the world. An estimated 50.6 million people in the United States—a bit more than 15% of the total population of 331.4 million—were born in a foreign country. The number of immigrants in the U.S. has increased by at least 400% since 1965.

Why do people want to come to America? ›

Why do people move to America? There are a significant amount of reasons one may want to immigrate to the United States. It is common for individuals to move based on a job opportunity, a loved one, or simply because they are seeking to live out the 'American Dream'.

Why did people come to America? ›

Colonists came to America because they wanted political liberty. They wanted religious freedom and economic opportunity. The United States is a country where individual rights and self-government are important. This has always been true.

When did the most African immigrants come to America? ›

More than half of Black immigrants (58%) arrived in the U.S. after 2000. Roughly three-in-ten (31%) came to the U.S. between 2010 and 2019, and a little over a quarter (27%) immigrated between 2000 and 2009.

Why did many African American immigrants come to the United States in the 1600s and 1700s? ›

Why did many African immigrants come to the United States in the 1600s and 1700s? They were forced to come as enslaved people. What was one way "old" immigrants differed from "new" immigrants in the 1800s? The "old" immigrants often had property and skills, while the "new" immigrants tended to be unskilled workers.

Who brought the first African to America? ›

Christopher Columbus likely transported the first Africans to the Americas in the late 1490s on his expeditions to the island of Hispaniola, now Haiti and the Dominican Republic. Their exact status, whether free or enslaved, remains disputed.

Who was the first known African to come to America? ›

For example, as historian Henry Louis Gates Jr. has pointed out, Juan Garrido became the first documented black person to arrive in what would become the U.S. when he accompanied Juan Ponce de León in search of the Fountain of Youth in 1513, and they ended up in present-day Florida, around St. Augustine.

Who was the first African to come to America? ›

discusses two of the earliest Africans to arrive in the Americas—men who journeyed to this continent a century before the first “20 And Odd” Africans arrived in Jamestown, Virginia, in 1619. Juan Garrido, a free black African, joined Spanish explorers in present-day Florida in 1513.

What three reasons caused African Americans to move to the north? ›

Sharecropping, agricultural depression, the widespread infestation of the boll weevil, and flooding also provided motives for African Americans to move into the Northern Cities.

Who were the first immigrants to America? ›

Thousands of years before Europeans began crossing the vast Atlantic by ship and settling en masse, the first immigrants arrived in North America from Asia. They were Native American ancestors who crossed a narrow spit of land connecting Asia to North America at least 20,000 years ago, during the last Ice Age.

What was the most common reason for immigrants to come to the United States at the turn of the 20th century? ›

Like most immigrants that came before them, early 20th century immigrants came to better their lives. In Europe, many left their homelands in search of economic prosperity and religious freedom. Living conditions in Europe were degraded, as poverty and an exploding European population led to food shortages.

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