- PELLUMB ISLAMIDepartment of Clinical Toxicology, Hospital of Mitrovica, Kosova.
- ADNAN BOZALIJADepartment of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Prishtina, Clinical Centre, Prishtina, Kosova.
- HILMI ISLAMIDepartment of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Prishtina, Clinical Centre, Prishtina, Kosova.
Keywords:Power plants of Kosovo, Workers during the process of gasification, Respiratory health
Objective: This study aimed to determine the effects of indoor air pollution on workers and the effects of discharged gases, such as CO, CO2, NO2, O3, SO2, NH3, and PM, on the manifestation of bronchial reactivity during the process of gasification at the power plants in Kastriot, Kosovo.
Methods: Parameters of lung function were determined using body plethysmography. Airway resistance (Raw) and intrathoracic gas volume (ITGV) were measured; based on these values, specific airway resistance (SRaw) and specific airway conductance were calculated.
Results: The study was performed in two groups: the control group and the experimental group. The control group consisted of 32 healthy people, whereas the experimental group consisted of 55 workers of the gasification department of the power plants in Kastriot, Kosovo. The results of this study indicated that the mean value of SRaw significantly increased in the experimental group (p<0.05) compared to the control group (p>0.1). This study also showed that smoking is in favor of the negative effects of air pollution at the premises of the gasification department (p<0.01). Measurements of the respiratory systems were made before and following provocation with histamine–aerosol (1 mg/ml) in the control and experimental groups. Changes between these two groups following this provocation with histamine–aerosol were found to be statistically significant (p<0.01).
Conclusion: Although air pollution requires time to cause a respiratory pathology, it permanently affects the manifestation of bronchial reactivity. This finding suggests that the real situation of these workers exposed to air pollution during the process of gasification poses a serious risk to their health and particularly to normal respiratory function.
Download data is not yet available.
Brauer M, Avila-Casado C, Fortoul TI, Vedal S, Stevens B, Churg A. Air pollution and retained particles in the lung. Environ Health Perspect 2001;109:1039-43.
Goldberg MS, Burnett RT, Valois MF, Flegel K, Bailar JC 3rd, Brook J, et al. Associations between ambient air pollution and daily mortality among persons with congestive heart failure. Environ Res 2003;91:8-20.
Pauwels RA, Buist AS, Calverley PM, Jenkins CR, Hurd SS, GOLD Scientific Committee. Global strategy for the diagnosis, management, and prevention of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. NHLBI/ WHO global initiative for chronic obstructive lung disease (GOLD) workshop summary. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2001;163:1256-76.
Traboulsi H, Guerrina N, Iu M, Maysinger D, Ariya P, Baglole CJ. Inhaled pollutants: The molecular scene behind respiratory and systemic diseases associated with ultrafine particulate matter. Int J Mol Sci 2017;18:243.
Robert J. Laumbach, Kipen HM. Respiratory health effects of air pollution: Update on biomass smoke and traffic pollution. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2012;129:3-11.
Kelly FJ, Fussell JC. Air pollution and public health: Emerging hazards and improved understanding of risk. Environ Geochem Health 2015;37:631-49.
Provisional Institutions of Self-Government. Ministry of Environment and Spatial Planning. Vol. 14. Kosovo: Kosovo State of the Environment Report; 2003. p. 81-4.
Kelly FJ, Fussell JC. Air pollution and airway disease. Clin Exp Allergy 2011;41:1059-71.
Neupane B, Jerrett M, Burnett RT, Marrie T, Arain A, Loeb M. Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and risk of hospitalization with community-acquired pneumonia in older adults. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2010;181:47-53.
Pierson WE, Covert DS, Koenig JQ. Air pollutants, bronchial hyperreactivity, and exercise. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1984;73:717-21.
Hallas HW, Chawes BL, Rasmussen MA, Arianto L, Stokholm J, Bønnelykke K, et al. Airway obstruction and bronchial reactivity from age 1 month until 13 years in children with asthma: A prospective birth cohort study. PLoS Med 2019;16:e1002722.
Martoni AA. Air pollution and cancer. In: Capello F, Gaddi A, editors. Clinical Handbook of Air Pollution-Related Diseases. Cham: Springer; 2018.
Fuentes-Leonarte V, Ballester F, Tenías JM. Sources of indoor air pollution and respiratory health in preschool children. J Environ Public Health 2009;2009:727516.
Liang B, Yu X, Mi H, Liu D, Huang Q, Tian M. Health risk assessment and source apportionment of VOCs inside new vehicle cabins: A case study from Chongqing, China. Atmos Pollut Res 2019;10:1677-84.
United Nations Environment Programme. Office for the Coordination of the Humanitarian Affairs, OCHA, Assessment Mission Kosovo- Serbia, Report Industrial Complex in Obilić-Power Plant. Vol. 3. Geneva: United Nations Environment Programme; 2003. p. 9-10.
MRC Asthma UK. Centre in Allergic Mechanisms of Asthma. United Kingdom: Medical Research Council; 2018.
Austoker J, Bryder L, editors. Historical Perspectives on the Role of the MRC: Essays in the History of the Medical Research Council of the United Kingdom and its Predecessor, the Medical Research Committee. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 1989.
Islami H, Ilazi A, Gashi N, Mustafa L, Maloku H, Jashanica A. Response of the adrenergic system after provoked bronchoconstriction in patients with bronchial asthma. Acta Inform Med 2014;22:107-10.
Hyseini K, Iljazi A, Morina N, Iljazi F, Islami H. Comparison of methylxanthines (doxofylline and diprophylline) effect in patients with bronchial hyperreactivity and bronchial asthma. Res J Pharm Biol Chem Sci 2017;5:500-9.
Islami H, Veseli H, Behluli E, Morina N. Importance of the adrenergic nerve system in the response of gases in the arterial blood following the provoked bronchospasm. Med Arch 2012;66:292-5.
Lajqi N, Ilazi A, Kastrati B, Islami H. Comparison of glucocorticoid (budesonide) and antileukotriene (montelukast) effect in patients with bronchial asthma determined with body plethysmography. Acta Inform Med 2015;23:347.
Morina N, Iljazi A, Iljazi F, Hyseini K, Bozalia A, Islami H. Effect of antileukotriene (zileuton) in patients with bronchial asthma (emphasized reactors, moderate reactors, and non-reactors). Res J Pharm Biol Chem Sci 2017;8:334-42.
Morina N, Iljazi A, Iljazi F, Gashi L, Bozalija A, Rustemi F, et al. Effect antileukotriene substances (montelukast) in patients with changed bronchial reactivity (non-reactors, moderate reactors and emphasized reactors). Res J Pharm Biol Chem Sci 2018;8:1092-9.
Morina N, Haliti A, Iljazi A, Islami D, Bexheti S, Bozalija A, et al. Comparison of effect of leukotriene biosynthesis blockers and inhibitors of phosphodiesterase enzyme in patients with bronchial hyperreactivity. Open Access Maced J Med Sci 2018;6:777-81.
Haxhiu MA, Islami H, Mandura I, Krasniqi A. The protective effect of oxatomide (R 35 443) on exercise-induced asthma. Plucne Bolesti Tuberk 1980;32:122-7.
Islami P, Ilazi A, Jakupi A, Bexheti S, Islami H. Importance of alpha-adrenergic receptor subtypes in regulating of airways tonus at patients with bronchial asthma. Acta Inform Med 2014;22:174-8.
Mayoralas-Alises S, Diaz-Lobato S. Air pollution and lung cancer. In: Current Respiratory Medicine Reviews. Vol. 8. Sharjah: Bentham Science Publishers; 2012. p. 418-29.
Raaschou-Nielsen O, Andersen ZJ, Hvidberg M, Jensen SS, Ketzel M, Sørensen M, et al. Air pollution from traffic and cancer incidence: A Danish cohort study. Environ Health 2011;10:67.
Kjellstrom TE, Neller A, Simpson RW. Air pollution and its health impacts: The changing panorama. Med J Aust 2002;177:604-8.
Martuzzi M, Krzyzanowski M, Bertollini R. Health impact assessment of air pollution: Providing further evidence for public health action. Eur Respir J Suppl 2003;40:86s-91s.
Haliti A, Islami P, Mustafa L, Dauti A, Bozalija A, Islami H. Effect of air pollutants on the manifestation of bronchial reactivity in a population living in proximity to a power plant. Toxicol Int 2018;25:1-9.
Faustini A, Stafoggia M, Colais P, Berti G, Bisanti L, Cadum E, et al. Air pollution and multiple acute respiratory outcomes. Eur Respir J 2013;42:304-13.
Yap J, Ng Y, Yeo KK, Sahlén A, Lam CS, Lee V, et al. Particulate air pollution on cardiovascular mortality in the tropics: Impact on the elderly. Environ Health 2019;18:34.
Requia WJ, Adams MD, Arain A, Papatheodorou S, Koutrakis P, Mahmoud M. Global association of air pollution and cardiorespiratory diseases: A systematic review, meta-analysis, and investigation of modifier variables. Am J Public Health 2018;108:S123-30.
Greven FE, Vonk JM, Fischer P, Duijm F, Vink NM, Brunekreef B. Air pollution during new year’s fireworks and daily mortality in the Netherlands. Sci Rep 2019;9:5735.
Williams AM, Phaneuf DJ, Barrett MA, Su JG. Short-term impact of PM2.5 on contemporaneous asthma medication use: Behavior and the value of pollution reductions. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2019;116:5246-53.
Prunicki M, Stell L, Dinakarpandian D, de Planell-Saguer M, Lucas RW, Hammond SK, et al. Exposure to NO2, CO, and PM2.5 is linked to regional DNA methylation differences in asthma. Clin Epigenetics 2018;10:2.
Sanyal S, Rochereau T, Maesano CN, Com-Ruelle L, Annesi-Maesano I. Long-term effect of outdoor air pollution on mortality and morbidity: A 12-year follow-up study for metropolitan France. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2018;15:2487.
Samek L. Overall human mortality and morbidity due to exposure to air pollution. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2016;29:417-26.
Lipfert FW. Long-term associations of morbidity with air pollution: A catalog and synthesis. J Air Waste Manag Assoc 2018;68:12-28.
Cromar KR, Gladson LA, Ewart G. Trends in excess morbidity and mortality associated with air pollution above American thoracic society-recommended standards, 2008-2017. Ann Am Thorac Soc 2019;16:836-45.
Pereza L, Rappa R, Künzlia N. The year of the lung: Outdoor air pollution and lung health. Swiss Med Wkly 2010;140:w13129.
Peden DB. The unexpected health effects of air pollution. N C Med J 2018;79:309-11.
Lavigne E, Burnett RT, Weichenthal S. Association of short-term exposure to fine particulate air pollution and mortality: Effect modification by oxidant gases. Sci Rep 2018;8:16097.
Kan H, Wong CM, Vichit-Vadakan N, Qian Z. Short-term association between sulfur dioxide and daily mortality: The public health and air pollution in Asia (PAPA) study. Environ Res 2010;110:258-64.
Saetta M, Di SA, Turato G, Facchini FM, Corbino L, Mapp CE, et al. CD8+ T-lymphocytes in peripheral airways of smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1998;157:822-6.